## Logic in Scandinavia

### Denmark

Denmark has logic groups primarily working in philosophy and computer science departments. In philosophy, at University of Copenhagen there is the group of Vincent Hendricks, at University of Roskilde the group of Patrick Blackburn, and at Aalborg University the group of Peter Øhrstrøm. Additionally, the philosophy departments of University of Southern Denmark and Aarhus University has researchers working in logic. In computer science, there are the sections of Algorithms, Logic and Graphs (AlgoLoG) and Formal Methods at the Technical University of Denmark, the group of Carsten Schürmann at the IT University of Copenhagen, the group Programming, Logic and Intelligent Systems (PLIS) at Roskilde University, the group Logic and Semantics at Aarhus University, the research section of Programming Languages and Theory of Computation (PLTC) at University of Copenhagen, and the group Distributed, Embedded and Intelligent Systems at Aalborg University. Additionally, the computer science department of University of Southern Denmark have researchers working in logic. There is generally fewer logic environments in mathematics in Denmark, though there are some logicians in mathematics, e.g. Asger Törnquist at the Department of Mathematics, Copenhagen University.

In Denmark there has been a number of research projects on logic combining researchers from multiple of the above-mentioned universities and also crossing the bound between philosophy and computer science departments. We expect to see more such projects in the future. There has also been a tradition of organising multi-disciplinary seminar series on logic in the Copenhagen area involving researchers in computer science and philosophy from Copenhagen University, Roskilde University and the Technical University of Denmark. The inter-disciplinary logic community of Copenhagen is informally organised in the Copenhagen Association for Dynamics, Interaction, Logic, Language and Computation (CADILLAC): http://cadillac-dk.weebly.com.

### Finland

#### Espoo

The Computational Logic Group at the Department of Computer Science at Aalto University is focused on developing automated reasoning techniques for solving computational problems in engineering and science. Their past research has been in the verification and testing of automation systems and software and in the use of formal methods to analyze distributed systems. Currently, the research group is researching efficient computational methods to solve large constraint satisfaction problems.

At the same department, the Distributed Algorithms group conducts research on the foundations of distributed computing. Their focus is on the locality of computational tasks in large computer networks: determining which tasks are global, requiring information from the other side of the network, and which ones are local, only requiring information from a local neighborhood. Mathematical logic has been applied in the group’s research on distributed systems.

#### Helsinki

The Helsinki Logic Group at the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Helsinki is conducting research on model theory, set theory, finite model theory, as well as logic and analysis. Their work in logic concerns infinitary logic (especially transfinite Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé games), second order logic, history of logic and most recently dependence logic. There is a weekly Logic Seminar held on Wednesdays at 12-14.

In the Philosophy group at the Faculty of Arts, Sara Negri has conducted research on philosophical logic.

Also of interest to logicians is the Gödel Enigma, a research project to study unpublished materials of Kurt Gödel and make them available to future logicians and philosophers.

#### Lappeenranta

At the School of Engineering Science at LUT University, the Fuzzy logic and soft computing group studies computational methods used in data analysis with the goal of creating new methods and tools based on fuzzy set theory. The methods studied concern classification, feature selection and extraction, as well as fuzzy principal component analysis. Other research areas include fuzzy linear systems, fuzzy differential equations and fuzzy multiperson multicriteria decision making problems.

#### Tampere

The Tampere Logic Group at Tampere University conducts research in finite model theory and logic in computer science, different variants of modal logic, team semantics and dependence logics, as well as many-valued logics. The group is currently engaged in research projects involving digital forensics and the automation of mathematical reasoning. The group also runs a a biweekly seminar of logic and discrete mathematics.

#### Turku

While the University of Turku does not have any research groups focusing on logic, professor Vesa Halava has done research on logic concerning the foundations of mathematics.

### Iceland

Logic in Iceland is mainly represented by the Icelandic Center of Excellence in Theoretical Computer Science (ICE-TCS, http://www.icetcs.ru.is) within the Computer Science department at Reykjavik University. There, a small and young, but rapidly growing, group of researchers works on equational logic, process algebra, modal, temporal and epistemic logics, runtime verification, complexity and logic, type theory, semantics of programming languages and other related topics. Ongoing projects include one on “Open problems in the equational logic of processes”, a project on “Quantified effects & interaction”, and one on “Epistemic logic for runtime monitoring”.

### Norway

Norway has logic groups primarily at the Universities of Bergen and Oslo, but also in Tromsø.

The Bergen Logic Group is a research group at the Department of Philosophy. The group’s research area includes formal logic (including proof theory, modal and non-classical logic, and theories of truth), philosophy of logic, theory of argumentation, and rationality. The group is responsible for several externally funded research projects and organizes many talks and workshops.

The Logic, Information and Interaction group at the University of Bergen is a research group at the Department of Information Science and Media Studies. The group study formalisation of reasoning about different aspects of interaction, in particular information change and aggregation. Research areas include modal logics for reasoning about interaction, such as epistemic-, action- and game logics, as well as logical formalisation of reasoning about interaction in other areas of the social sciences such as game theory, (computational) social choice and social network analysis. The group is very active in the international community and is responsible for organising the next Scandinavian Logic Symposium and Nordic Logic School in Bergen in 2021.

There is also a logic cluster in Department of Informatics based in the Group on Programming Theory, with researchers working especially in mathematical logic and modal logic.

At the University of Oslo, there is research and teaching in logic in the Departments of Mathematics, Informatics and Philosophy. Topics studied include complexity theory, computability theory, set theory, reverse mathematics, modal logic, predicativity, paradoxes, the investigation of algorithms, and applications in the foundations of mathematics and formal semantics. An overview with further links can be found here.

The logic group in Oslo is host to several externally funded research projects and is responsible for numerous talks and workshops, an annual Skolem Lecture in honour of this great Oslo-based logician, and a weekly interdisciplinary seminar in logic.

There are also logicians based at other universities in and around Oslo: Eyvind Briseid and Henrik Forssell.

At the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Michael Morreau does research in philosophical logic and formal epistemology, and Jan Harald Alnes works on philosophical logic and Frege.

### Sweden

#### Gothenburg

Much of the research in the Division of Logic and Types at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering is in the area intuitionistic type theory and constructive mathematics. Much current work is on univalent foundations and homotopy type theory. The group is also developing the proof assistant Agda based on intuitionistic type theory. The group runs a seminar series entitled Initial Types Club.

The logic group at the Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science focuses on solving philosophically motivated questions using tools from mathematical and computational logic in, for example, the areas of formal theories of truth, metamathematics of foundational systems, modal logic and dependence logic. The research seminar meets biweekly.

#### Stockholm

The main research of the logic group at the Department of Philosophy at Stockholm university is currently focused on various logical systems for agency and multi-agent systems, including logics for strategic reasoning and for normative reasoning, as well as study of fragments of the modal mu-calculus and of transition semantics for branching time logics. There is a broader scope weekly seminar series on Logic, Language and Mind, organized by the Centre for Logic, Language, and Mind (CLLAM) at the department.

The Stockholm University Department of Mathematics logic group has a long-standing focus on foundations of mathematics, including especially type theory, constructive mathematics, and categorical logic. There is a weekly seminar on mathematical logic: http://logic.math.su.se/seminar/

At the division of theoretical computer science (TCS) at KTH several researchers work on areas involving logic, such as Formal Verification, Software security, and Provably secure systems. While most of this research uses or adapts existing logical frameworks for Model checking, Deductive verification, and Theorem proving, some researchers have also theoretical contributions to specification languages and verification techniques based on Temporal logics and variants of Hoare logic. Further, SAT/SMT solving is another area of interest.

#### Uppsala

The logic group in Uppsala focuses on studying asymptotic properties of classes of finite structures and on investigating and classifying infinite structures that are, in one way or other, limits of finite structures, in particular (ultra)homogeneous structures, or probabilistic limit structures. Often methods from model theoretic classification theory (stability/simplicity theory) are used. See the webpage of Vera Koponen for more information.